A xerocole, commonly referred to as a desert animal, is an animal adapted to live in the desert. The main challenges they must overcome are lack of water and excessive heat. To conserve water, they both avoid evaporation and concentrate excretions (i.e. urine and feces). Some are so adept at conserving water or obtaining it from food that they do not need to drink at all. To escape the desert heat, xerocoles tend to be either nocturnal or crepuscular, most active at dawn and dusk.